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Lower Canada retained French civil laws, but both provinces were governed by the British criminal code. The British crown installed a governor to direct each colony. The legislative branch consisted of an appointed Legislative Council and an elected Assembly, which ostensibly represented the interests of the colonists.

In reality, though, the Assembly held very little power, since the governor could veto its decisions. Not surprisingly, this was a recipe for friction and resentment. This was especially the case in Lower Canada, where an English governor and an English-dominated Council held sway over a French-dominated Assembly. Members of the conservative British merchant elite dominated the Executive and Legislative Councils and showed little interest in French-Canadian matters.

These ideas were adopted into the Union Act of Upper and Lower Canada soon merged into the Province of Canada and became governed by a single legislature, the new Parliament of Canada. While most British Canadians welcomed the new system, the French were less than thrilled. Thus the united province was built on slippery ground.

The decade or so following unification was marked by political instability as one government replaced another in fairly rapid succession. Meanwhile, the USA had grown into a self-confident economic powerhouse, while British North America was still a loose patchwork of independent colonies. It became clear that only a less volatile political system would stave off these challenges, and the movement toward federal union gained momentum. And so began the modern, self-governing state of Canada, originally known as the Dominion of Canada.

He sent the Ottawa-appointed governor packing and, in November , seized control of Upper Fort Garry, thereby forcing Ottawa to the negotiating table. However, with his delegation already en route, Riel impulsively and for no good reason executed a Canadian prisoner he was holding at the fort.

As a result, the then-pint-sized province of Manitoba was carved out of the NWT and entered the dominion in July Macdonald sent troops after Riel but he narrowly managed to escape to the USA.

He was formally exiled for five years in Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau declared a state of emergency and called in the army to protect government officials. The murder discredited the FLQ in the eyes of many erstwhile supporters and the movement quickly faded away. The issue was put on the back burner for much of the s. To take effect, the so-called Meech Lake Accord needed to be ratified by all 10 provinces and both houses of parliament by Mulroney and Bourassa drafted a new, expanded accord, but the separatists picked it apart and it too was trounced.

The rejection sealed the fate of Mulroney, who resigned the following year, and of Bourassa, who left political life a broken man.

Relations between Anglos and Francophones hit new lows, and support for independence was rekindled. Only one year after returning to power in , the PQ, under Premier Lucien Bouchard, launched a second referendum. The discovery of gold along the Fraser River in and in the Cariboo region in had brought an enormous influx of settlers to such goldmine boomtowns as Williams Lake and Barkerville.

Once the gold mines petered out, though, BC was plunged into poverty. In it joined the dominion in exchange for the Canadian government assuming all its debt and promising to link it with the east within 10 years via a transcontinental railroad. Macdonald rightly regarded the railroad as crucial in unifying the country, spurring immigration and stimulating business and manufacturing.

It was a costly proposition, made even more challenging by the rough and rugged terrain the tracks had to traverse. To entice investors, the government offered major benefits, including vast land grants in western Canada.

Workers drove the final spike into the track at Craigellachie, BC, on November 7, As in Manitoba, they quickly clashed with government surveyors over land issues. In , after their repeated appeals to Ottawa had been ignored, they coaxed Louis Riel out of exile to represent their cause. Riel had the backing of the Cree, but times had changed: with the railroad nearly complete, government troops arrived within days. Riel surrendered in May and was hanged for treason later that year.

In addition, the new railroad opened the floodgates to immigration. Between and about 4. This included large groups of Americans and Eastern Europeans, especially Ukrainians, who went to work cultivating the prairies. I think we can claim that it is Canada that shall fill the 20th century.

The issue took on even greater urgency when WWI broke out in But today, a growing number of Canadians see him as a hero who defended the rights of the oppressed against an unjust government. Statues of Riel now stand on Parliament Hill in Ottawa and outside the Manitoba Legislature in Winnipeg, where his boyhood home Click here and grave have become places of pilgrimage. The University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon has named its campus theater, student center and pub after Riel.

As the war dragged on and thousands of soldiers returned in coffins, recruitment ground to a halt. The government, intent on replenishing its depleted forces, introduced the draft in It proved to be a very unpopular move, to say the least, especially among French Canadians. The conscription issue fanned the flames of nationalism even more. A U-boat launched a torpedo at an offshore freighter; it missed and struck inland at Bell Island.

Under the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King, an eccentric fellow who communicated with spirits and worshipped his dead mother, Canada began asserting its independence.

Mackenzie King made it clear that Britain could no longer automatically draw upon the Canadian military, started signing treaties without British approval, and sent a Canadian ambassador to Washington. This forcefulness led to the Statute of Westminster, passed by the British Parliament in Oddly, that right remained on the books for another half century. Today, Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a parliament consisting of an appointed upper house, or Senate, and an elected lower house, the House of Commons.

Newfoundland finally joined Canada in Joey Smallwood, the politician who persuaded the island to sign up, claimed it would bring economic prosperity. The conflict was sparked by a land claim: the town of Oka was planning to expand a golf course onto land that the Mohawk considered sacred. A day clash ensued, and one policeman died of gunshot wounds.

The event shook Canada, and focused national attention on Aboriginal human rights violations and outstanding land claims. In the aftermath of Oka, a Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples issued a report recommending a complete overhaul of relations between the government and indigenous peoples.

Slow to respond at first, in the Ministry of Indian and Northern Affairs issued an official Statement of Reconciliation that accepted responsibility for past injustices toward Aboriginal peoples.

It specifically apologized for the policy of removing children from their families and educating them in underfunded government schools in the name of assimilation. Most importantly, though, it pledged to give indigenous peoples greater control over their land, resources, government and economy.

You can read the entire Statement of Reconciliation at www. To learn more about this and other land claims, Click here; for information on Aboriginal-owned businesses, Click here.

For a quarter century, it remained in the grip of ultra-conservative Maurice Duplessis and his Union Nationale party, with support from the Catholic Church and various business interests. Advances included expanding the public sector, investing in public education and nationalizing the provincial hydroelectric companies. In , Canada became the first country in the world to pass a national multicultural act and establish a federal department of multiculturalism.

The new millennium has been kind to Canada. The loonie took off around , thanks to the oil, diamonds and other natural resources fueling the economy. Tolerance marches onward, with medical marijuana and gay marriage both legalized recently. Expect the country to continue getting all glammed up before the world spotlight shines on it for the Winter Olympics in Vancouver.

Circa 25, BC Hot on the hoofs of juicy caribou and bison, the first humans arrive in Canada by crossing over the land bridge that once connected Siberia to North America. It belongs to no nation; rather it serves fishing fleets from all over Europe.

By the British claim it as the first colony of their Empire. He searches for gold and precious metals, but gets only chilled rocks. Still, he plunks down the tricolore to claim the land for France. Soon he commands 40 ships and men. He eventually retires to France and becomes the Marquis of Savoy. Years later, the company morphs into The Bay department store chain. Some 14, men, women and children are forced onto ships during the Great Expulsion; many head to Louisiana in the USA.

It lasts less than an hour and kills both commanding generals. France takes it on the chin. Prospectors discover gold along the Fraser River in BC, spurring thousands of get-rich-quick dreamers to move north and start panning. Most remain poor. Queen Victoria celebrates with Canadian bacon for breakfast.

However, she retains the right to keep her mug on the money and appoint a governor general. The ban was supposed to be lifted within a few years, but depleted cod stocks never rebounded. Modern day warriors, indeed.

Patients can buy ready-to-use buds, or seeds to grow their own. Nice, but with no sense of humor. Our differences with Americans may be subtle, but they are significant. We are tolerant towards foreign cultures and celebrate their differences by encouraging multiculturalism. After all, we coined the term in and have it enshrined in our Charter of Rights and Freedoms. And we are open-minded when it comes to alternative lifestyles like same-sex marriage and lighting up a joint.

According to almost every international institution, Canada rates in the top echelon in everything from public transit to freedom of the press to world business competitiveness.

It is a compassionate and very pleasant country to live in, even if you are old, poor, ill or different. Yet listen to us! We fret that multiculturalism might be leading to a splintered society with pockets of solitudes.

And we are indignant about having to honor treaties we signed long ago with Aboriginals who refuse to simply fade into the sunset. We are more a nation of debaters than people of action. Canadians are like one small family living in a very big house in the suburbs. If something really irks, we can always retreat to another room until our anger dissipates. Peace at any cost is an integral part of our heritage and psyche, and we are lucky to have never experienced war on our home turf.

Despite the reality that Canadians have fought in overseas conflicts for the better part of a century, we see ourselves as a nation of peacekeepers; it was former prime minister Lester B Pearson who received a Nobel Peace Prize in for settling the Suez Crisis, an action that led to his being lauded as the father of peacekeeping.

A favorite quip is that the only thing unifying Canada is a universal hatred of successful, corporate, American-leaning Toronto, although a recent documentary on the subject revealed that no-one could say exactly why. Perhaps just to unite us. We may not have the sense of history of the UK, or the bravado and self-assuredness of the Aussies, but we do have our own quiet style that is the key to the miracle that has kept this complex, open society from falling apart or crashing into warring tribal factions.

We have learned that flexibility, compromise, tolerance, dialogue, a sense of humor and being nice just might be the glue that keeps this unlikely country together. While the present is rosy, Canadians are nervous about a graying future; one in every seven Canadians is a senior over 65 , and the number of children under 14 years is at an all-time low.

By there will no longer be enough new workers to replace retiring baby boomers, the fastest-growing demographic. At the same time, many provinces have abolished mandatory retirement at What does a typical Canadian family look like?

Mum and dad are raising 1. The gap between rich and poor in Canada is increasing and income growth for the working classes has slowed. Canadians are borrowing more, especially to buy homes that have reached record prices in British Columbia, Alberta and Ontario.

Kids will attend postsecondary education in numbers unrivaled in any other country with female students vastly outnumbering males , creating the most highly educated population per capita in the world. Inside an average Canadian home all the latest electronic gadgets are present along with a car or two in the garage.

One in 50 Quebecers is a Tremblay. Nationally, twice as many Canadians live in common-law relationships as Americans. In Canada became the fourth country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage; so far same-sex divorce has not yet been sanctioned. Same-sex couples comprise only 0.

But a federal bill to legalize possession of marijuana for personal use remains stalled. Leisure-loving Canadians work about three weeks fewer per year than Americans, and fewer than Australians, too. During the July and August school break, many kids spend a week or two in camp learning outdoor skills, languages and sports.

Canadians are known for winter sports like skiing and especially hockey, the national pastime, which is played by 1. But Canadians are much more likely to watch hockey than to play it. Crime remains higher in western Canada than in the east. Since the mids the government has steadily paid down the federal debt and now regularly posts budgetary surpluses. The Canadian dollar is at a year high against the US buck, and unemployment rates are at a year low. While the economy is dominated by the service industry, Canada is unusual among developed nations in the importance of natural resources such as logging, mining, wheat and oil.

Oil in particular is a major factor in the current economic climate. Balmy weather in lower British Columbia attracts winter-weary Canadians from further east.

In recent years the oil boom in northern Alberta has drawn workers from across the country, particularly Atlantic Canada, where it is almost a tradition for young people to leave their unemployment-plagued home provinces to find work in other parts of Canada see boxed text. After all, it was the first country in the world to establish a federal department of multiculturalism. Chinese immigrants were brought to the west to build the transcontinental railway in the s, and by the time of the most recent census , the country had become home to different ethnic groups speaking languages.

Canada has one of the highest rates of immigration per capita in the world and accepts large numbers of refugees. With a growth rate of only 1. These 1. Among the Aboriginal population the average age is As in other nations such as Australia, the Aboriginal suicide rate, which is six times higher than for the rest of the population, is an alarming indicator of social crisis.

But the colonists saw treaties as a trade of land for compensation. More than 50 treaties were signed, first with the British and then the Canadian governments.

Among those who did, many did not receive the land, money, food, medicine or housing they were promised. Since the s Aboriginal people have made land claims against the federal and provincial governments, an issue that gained urgency as plans were made to develop northern resources.

Where no treaties were signed, land claims now involve roughly half the total area of Canada. Resolution of land claims is complicated, as two levels of government are involved with all the ensuing debates surrounding land ownership and how treaties should be interpreted. Some cases remain unresolved after half a century and frustration has mounted.

A blockade by the Haida of British Columbia against logging an old-growth forest finally resolved a year land claims battle. There have been armed standoffs between Aboriginals and police like that at an Ontario reserve called Camp Ipperwash in , where police shot and killed Chippewa protestor Anthony Dudley George. It was the first modern-day land-claim settlement. Settling land claims is an important step for Aboriginals to become stewards of their own future. Since the creation of Nunavut there has been widespread mineral exploration that gives a territory the potential for much-needed revenue.

Aboriginal land claims continue to capture the front page of Canadian newspapers. For the latest in aboriginal news, visit www. Dotted throughout are the remaining areas of Allophones, representing languages from Icelandic to Urdu.

Immigration patterns vary in different regions of the country. BC has a long history of welcoming Japanese, Chinese and South Asian immigrants, and more recently large numbers of people from Eastern Europe and Iran. Living conditions on reserves are often far below the rest of the country. In March Statistics Canada projected that the number of visible minorities in Canada will double by , and that by the majority of the populations of Toronto and Vancouver would be comprised of visible minorities.

Equally important, the cultural revival and sense of pride that an outside interest in aboriginal culture has generated gives young people a purpose to learn about their heritage. The further north in Canada you head, the more your travel dollars benefit Aboriginals. Increasingly, Aboriginals are opening their lives to visitors. Dine on maktaaq, smoked whitefish and caribou stew in the Tuktoyaktuk home of a traditional hunter or try a homestay with an Iqaluit family.

Many Canadians feel the system is too lenient on visitors who arrive in Canada and declare themselves refugees, which grants them a government-subsidized existence while they await a hearing on their status, which can take months or sometimes even years.

Some refugees disappear into the system or illegally skip to the USA. International people-smuggling rackets often target Canada because the coastline is vast and penalties are less severe than in the USA. The racketeers coach their human cargo on how to declare refugee status, but often their ultimate destination is the USA, a quick but illegal trip over the border. Return to beginning of chapter MEDIA Although often overshadowed by US airwaves and publications, Canada has a healthy media sector, with television and radio stations in both English and French.

There is a free press with very little censorship of editorial content apart from that which might discourage advertising or attract libel suits, both simmering issues. Most Canadian newspapers are owned by large chains, which have been known to gobble up city-based alternative weeklies that might threaten competition.

In Canada, two-thirds of Muslims actively practice their faith, while only one-fifth of Christians regularly attend religious services. Teeth are optional. Until very recently lacrosse was in danger of disappearing from the public consciousness, but the sport seems to be experiencing a renaissance with a new pro league.

As such, the city is digging up every second road and making plans to hustle its street people off to Seattle when the world visits in February of that year. Tickets are distributed by lottery, and then you have to take whatever event they give you.

Holy biathlon, Batman! Unless you know someone. With so many different cultures settling in Canada in the past generation, these sports are quickly emerging as alternatives to hockey for new communities.

The origins of so many players on Canadian national and Olympic teams give a picture of the diversity and the challenges facing the country as it searches for its identity in the 21st century. Finally, lest we forget curling, that unique brand of frozen shuffleboard that captivates large segments of the Canadian population each winter. A Canadian sport that actually eschews fighting, curling requires players to slide polished granite stones to a painted target at the other end of a long sheet of ice.

Closest to the center wins a point in this sport that originated in Scotland. Players use a broom to affect how much curl a stone will get. Today, literature is the creative endeavor by which Canada has most effectively defined and distinguished itself, and revealed its multicultural diversity of voices. And Canadian readers are darn proud of them. The festival website www.

Translation is considered an art in Canada. The finest French-Canadian literature can be read in English. Corner Gas and Little Mosque on the Prairie, the top two Canadian sitcoms, are both set in small-town Saskatchewan although only the former is filmed there. Music Canadian fans are as loyal and adventurous as they come.

Major galleries exhibit the strengths of their permanent collections and host traveling exhibitions from home and abroad. Travelers taking the back roads will discover plenty of local creativity, too. In the midth century, Paul Kane and Cornelius Krieghoff both painted aboriginal subjects; works by them can be seen at the Royal Ontario Museum and the National Gallery. Since the midth century there has been strong appreciation of and a market for aboriginal art, in particular Inuit sculpture.

Check out www. By the s, professional theaters existed in most cities, but Canadian talent remained under-utilized. The increasingly adventurous Canadian Opera Company moved to new Toronto digs in Traditions brought to Canada by early settlers Scots, French etc and dance styles of more recent immigrant groups eg Ukrainian, Afro-Caribbean and Indian , are represented by amateur and professional ensembles, many of whom perform during cultural festivals.

Landscape-altering architecture for the Winter Olympics in Vancouver created much local controversy, including protests about the environmental footprint and the loss of low-income housing downtown.


– exuper: Canada (part-1)

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