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These modifications are outlined below. EPA is authorized to promulgate a NPDWR “that requires the use of a treatment technique in lieu of establishing an MCL,” if the Agency finds that “it is not economically or technologically feasible to ascertain the level of the contaminant.

EPA is required to take into consideration the effects of contaminants upon sensitive subpopulations i. The Act as amended also requires EPA to promulgate regulations to “govern” the recycle of filter backwash within the treatment process of public utilities Section b l4.

September are also the technologies which would achieve compliance with the provisions of the LTlFBR. Finally, as part of the SDWA Amendments, recordkeeping requirements were modified to apply to every person who is subject to a requirement of this title or who is a grantee Section a l A.

Such persons are required to establish and maintain such records, make such reports, conduct such monitoring, and provide such information as the Administrator may reasonably require by regulation. Existing Regulations and Stakeholder Involvement 1.

Systems seeking to avoid filtration were required to meet avoidance criteria and obtain avoidance determination by December For systems properly avoiding filtration, later failures to meet avoidance criteria triggered a requirement that filtration be provided within 18 months. A more limited set of ICR requirements pertain to ground water systems serving between 50, and , people.

In addition. PVVSs were required to provide treatment train schematics, operating data and source water occurrence data for bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Monitoring for treatment study applicability began in September The remaining occurrence monitoring began in July and concluded in December The purpose of the ICR was to collect occurrence and treatment information to help evaluate the need for possible changes to the current microbial requirements and existing microbial treatment practices, and to help evaluate the need for future regulation of disinfectants and disinfection byproducts DBFs.

The ICR will provide EPA with additional information on the national occurrence in drinking water of 1 chemical byproducts that form when disinfectants used for microbial control react with naturally occurring compounds already present in source water; and 2 disease- causing microorganisms, including Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and viruses.

Analysis of ICR data is not expected to be completed in the time frame necessary for inclusion in the LTlFBR, however if the data is available and has been quality controlled and peer reviewed during the necessary time frame, EPA will consider the datat as it refines its analysis for the final rule. The ICR monthly sampling data will also provide information on the quality of the recycle waters via monthly monitoring for 18 months of pH, alkalinity, turbidity, temperature.

This data will provide some indication of the treatability of the water, the extent to which contaminant concentration effects may occur, and the potential for contribution to DBP formation.

However, sampling to determine the occurrence of pathogens in recycle waters was not performed. December The purposes of the IESWTR are to improve control of microbial pathogens, specifically the protozoan Cryptosporidium, and address risk trade-offs between pathogens and disinfection byproducts. Key provisions established by the rule include: a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal MCLC of zero for Cryptosporidium; 2-log 99 percent Cryptosporidium removal requirements for systems that filter; strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity performance standards of 1.

In addition, certain requirements for chlorine dioxide apply to transient noncommunity water systems TNCWSs. The NPDWRs also include monitoring, reporting, and public notification requirements for these compounds. EPA believes the implementation of the Stage 1 DBPR will reduce the levels of disinfectants and disinfection byproducts in drinking water supplies.

The Agency believes the rule will provide public health protection for an additional 20 million households that were not previously covered by drinking water rules for disinfection byproducts. The first meeting was held July 22 and Breakout sessions with stakeholders were held to generate feedback on the regulatory provisions being considered and to solicit feedback on next steps for rule development and stakeholder involvement.

Additionally, information was presented summarizing ongoing research and data gathering activities regarding the recycle of filter backwash. The presentations generated useful discussion and provided substantial feedback to E:PA regarding technical issues, stakeholder concerns, and possible regulatory options EPA k. The second stakeholder meeting was held in Dallas, Texas on March 3 and 4, EPA presented new analyses, summaries of current research, and revised regulatory options and data collected since the July stakeholder meeting.

Four break- out sessions were extremely useful and generated a wide range of information, issues, and technical input from a diverse group of stakeholders EPA J. The Agency utilized the feedback received during these two stakeholder meetings in developing today’s proposed rule. EPA also mailed a draft version of the preamble for today’s proposed rule to the attendees of these meetings.

Several of the options which are presented today represent modifications suggested by stakeholders. EPA requests comment on today’s proposed rule, the information supporting the proposal, and the potential impact of proposed regulatory provisions on public health risk. Information on the number of waterborne disease outbreaks from the U. CDC indicates that, between and , waterborne disease outbreaks were reported, with over , associated cases of disease.

During this period, a number of agents were implicated as the cause, including protozoa, viruses and bacteria. Waterborne disease caused by Cryptosporidium is of particular concern, as it is difficult to inactivate Crvptosporidiam oocysts with standard disinfection practices unlike pathogens such as viruses and bacteria , and there is currently no therapeutic treatment for cryptosporidiosis unlike giardiasis.

Because Cryptosporidium is not generally inactivated in systems using standard disinfection practices, the control of Cryptosporidium is dependent on physical removal processes e. The filter effluent turbidity limits specified under the SWTR were created to remove large parasite cysts such as Giardia and did not specifically control for smaller Cryptosporidium oocysts. In addition, filter backwash water recycling practices such as adding recycled water to the treatment train after primary coagulant addition may overwhelm the plant and harm efforts to control Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, and emerging pathogens.

Despite filtration and disinfection, Cryptosporidium oocysts have been found in filtered drinking water LeChevallier, et al. EPA believes that today’s proposal, however, will ensure that drinking water treatment is operating efficiently to control Cryptosporidium see Sections IV. A and IV. D and other microbiological contaminants of concern [e. In order to assess the public health risk associated with consumption of surface water or GWUDI from PWSs, EPA has evaluated information and conducted analysis in four important areas discussed in the following paragraphs.

These areas are: 1 The health effects of cryptosporidiosis; 2 cryptosporidiosis waterborne disease outbreak data; 3 Cryptosporidium occurrence data from raw surface water, raw GWUDI, finished water, and recycle stream studies; and 4 an assessment of the current baseline surface water treatment required by existing regulations.

Health Effects of Cryptosporidiosis and Sources and Transmission of Cryp tosporidi u m Waterborne diseases are usually acute i. Some waterborne pathogens cause or are associated with more serious disorders such as hepatitis, gastric cancer, peptic ulcers, myocarditis, swollen lymph glands, meningitis, encephalitis, and many other diseases. Cryptosporidiosis is a protozoal infection that usually causes days of diarrhea with possibly a low-grade fever, nausea, and abdominal cramps in healthy individuals Juranek, Unlike giardiasis for which effective antibiotic therapy is available, an antibiotic treatment for cryptosporidiosis does not exist Framm and Soave, There are several species of Cryptosporidium which have been identified, including C.

Cryptosporidium parvum was first recognized as a human pathogen in Juranek, Recently, both the human and cattle types of C. Transmission of cryptosporidiosis often occurs through the ingestion of infective Cryptosporidium oocysts from feces- contaminated food or water, but may also result from direct or indirect contact with infected persons or mammals Casemore, ; Cordell and Addiss, Dupont, et.

Animal agriculture as a nonpoint source of C. Other sources of C. In addition, rainfall appears to increase the concentration of Cryptosporidium in surface water, documented in a study by Atherholt, et al. There is evidence that an immune response to Cryptosporidium exists, but the degree and duration of this immunity is not well characterized Payer and Ungar, Recent work conducted by Chappell, et al.

The investigators found the 50 percent infectious dose for previously exposed individuals possessing a pre- existing blood serum antibody to be 1, oocysts compared to oocysts for individuals without prior exposure, and individuals with prior exposure who became infected shed fewer oocysts. Because of this type of immune response, symptomatic infection in communities exposed to chronic low levels of oocysts will primarily be observed in newcomers [e.

Sensitive populations are more likely to become infected and ill, and gastrointestinal illness among this population may be chronic. These sensitive populations include children. This sensitive segment represents almost 20 percent of the population in the U. Gerba et al. EPA is particularly concerned about the exposure of severely immunocornpromised persons to Crvptosporidium in drinking water, because the severity and duration of illness is often greater in immunocompromised persons than in healthy individuals, and it may be fatal among this population.

Cases of illness from cryptosporidiosis were rarely reported until , when the disease became prevalent due to the AIDS epidemic Current, As laboratory diagnostic techniques improved during subsequent years, outbreaks among immunocompetent persons were recognized as well. Over the last several years there have been a number of documented waterborne cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in the U. Craun t:t al. Waterborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States The occurrence of outbreaks of waterborne gastrointestinal infections, including cryptosporidiosis, may be much greater than suggested by reported surveillance data Craun and Calderon The CDC-EPA, and the Council of Slate and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative surveillance program for collection and periodic reporting of data on waterborne disease outbreaks since However, the following information demonstrates why the reported surveillance data may under- report actual outbreaks.

The U. National Research Council strongly suggests that the number of identified and reported outbreaks in the CDC database both for surface and ground waters represents a small percentage of actual waterborne disease outbreaks National Research Council, ; Bennett et al.

In practice, most waterborne outbreaks in community water systems are not recognized until a sizable proportion of the population is ill Perz et al. Even if infected individuals consult a physician, Cryptosporidium may not be identified by routine diagnostic tests for gastroenteritis and, therefore, tends to be under-reported in the general population Juranek Such obstacles to outbreak reporting indicate that the incidence of disease and outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis may be much higher than officially reported by the CDC.

The CDC database is based upon responses to a voluntary and confidential survey that is completed by State and local public health officials. CDC defines a wiiterborne disease outbreak as occurring when at least two persons experience a similar illness after ingesting water Kramer et al. I and Table II. Table II. The total number of outbreaks reported includes outbreaks resulting from protozoan contamination, virus contamination, bacterial contamination, chemical contamination, and unknown factors.

Total out- : Cases of2. CDC, Epidemiological investigations of outbreaks in populations served by filtered systems have shown that treatment deficiencies have resulted in the plants’ failure to remove contamination from the water. Sometimes operational deficiencies have been discovered only during post- outbreak investigations. From to , there have been 19 reported outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in the U. Craun et al, As mentioned previously, C.

Furthermore, cryptosporidiosis outbreaks were not reported in the U. The remaining nine outbreaks were associated with recreational activities Craun et al. The cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in U. TABLE Cases of illness estimated 1 1 7 2 3 ; combined total for Jackson County and Talent, below.

None reported Suspected cause Sewage-contami- nated well. Treatment defi- ciencies. Ground water under the influence of surface water. Source not identified. High source water contamination and treatment defi- ciencies. Sewage contamina- tion. Craun, et at. The first outbreak known cases, 2, estimated cases of illness , in Braun Station, Texas in , was caused by sewage leaking into a ground water well suspected to be under the influence of surface water. A second outbreak in Pennsylvania in estimated cases of illness , occurred at a well also under the influence of surface water.

The third and fourth multi-episodic outbreaks took place in Jackson County, Oregon in 3, estimated cases of illness and were linked to treatment deficiencies in the Talent, OR surface water system. A fifth outbreak 27 cases of illness in Minnesota, in , occurred at a resort supplied by lake water. Finally, a sixth outbreak cases of illness in Washington in , occurred due to sewage-contaminated wells at a CWS.

Three of the ten outbreaks Carollton, GA ; Talent, OR ; Milwaukee, WI were caused by water supplied by water treatment plants where the recycle of filter backwash was implicated as a possible cause of the outbreak.

In total, the nine outbreaks which have taken place in PWSs have caused an estimated , cases of illness. These outbreaks illustrate that when treatment in place is not operating optimally or when source water is highly contaminated, Cryptosporidium may enter the finished drinking water and infect drinking water consumers, ultimately resulting in waterborne disease outbreaks.

Runoff from unprotected watersheds allows the transport of these microorganisms from sources of oocysts e. If treatment operates inefficiently, oocysts may enter the finished water at levels of public health concern. A particular public health challenge is that simply increasing existing disinfection levels above those most commonly practiced for standard disinfectants i.

Cryptosporidium oocysts have been detected in wastewater, pristine surface water, surface water receiving agricultural runoff or contaminated by sewage, ground water under the direct influence of surface water GWUDI , water for recreational use, and drinking water Rose , Soave Results are presented as oocysts per liters, unless otherwise marked.

Each of the studies cited in Tables However, the immunofluorescence assay IFA method and other Cryptosporidium detection methods are inaccurate and lack adequate precision. Current methods do not indicate the species of Cryptosporidium identified or whether the oocysts detected are viable or infectious Frey et al. The methods for detecting Cryptosporidium were modeled from Giardia methods, therefore recovery of Cryptosporidium is deficient primarily because Cryptosporidium oocysts are more difficult to capture due to their size Cryptosporidium oocysts are U.

In addition, it is a challenge to recover Cryptosporidium oocysts from the filters when they are concentrated, due to the adhesive character of the organisms. Other potential limitations to the protozoan detection methods include: 1 Filters used to concentrate the water samples are easily clogged by debris from the water sample; 2 interference occurs between debris or particulates that fluoresce due to cross reactivity of antibodies, which results in false positive identifications; 3 it is difficult to view the structure of oocysts on the membrane filter or slide, resulting in false negative determinations: and 4 most methods require an advanced level of skill to be performed accurately.

Despite these limitations, the occurrence information generated from these studies demonstrates that Cryptosporidium occurs in source waters. The source waters for which EPA has compiled information include rivers, reservoirs, lakes, streams, raw water intakes, springs, wells under the influence of surface water and infiltration galleries.

The most comprehensive study in scope and national representation LeChevallier and Norton, will be described in further detail following Tables River below rural community in for- ested area subset of all. River below dairy farming agricul- tural activities subset of all. Hansen and Ongerth ! Hansen and Ongerth NR! Consonery et al. NR Consonery et al. Archer et al.

Swertfeger et al. NR Stewart et al. NR Swigeret al. Atherholt, et al. Springs subcategory of above ground water sources. Infiltration galleries subcategory of above ground water sources. Horizontal wells subcategory of above ground water sources. Hancock et al. Hancock et al Rosen et al. SAIC, ‘ Lee, The LeChevallier and Norton study collected the most samples and repeat samples from the largest number of surface water plants nationally. LeChevallier and Norton conducted the study to determine the level of Cryptosporidium in surface water supplies and plant effluent water.

In total, surface water sources for 72 treatment plants in 15 States and 2 Canadian provinces were sampled. Sixty-seven surface water locations were examined. The generated data set covered a two-year monitoring period March, to January, which was combined with a previous set of data October, to June, collected from most of the same set of systems to create a database containing five samples IFA per site or more for 94 percent of the 67 systems sampled. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in Cryptosporidium was detected in The authors hypothesize the origin of the decrease in detections in the second round of sampling to be most probably linked to fluctuating or declining source water concentrations of Crvptosporidium oocysts from the first reporting period to the second.

LeChevallier and Norton also detected Cryptosporidium oocysts in 35 of plant effhient samples A summary of occurrence data for all samples in filtered effluents for the years to showed that 32 of the water treatment plants 45 percent were consistently negative for Cryptosporidium; 24 plants 34 percent were positive once; and 15 plants 21 percent were positive for Cryptosporidium two or more times between to Forty-four of the plants 62 percent wore positive for Ciardia.

Crvptosporidium, or both at one time or another LeChevallier and Norton The oocyst recoveries and densities reported by LuChevallier and Norton are comparable to the results of another survey of treated, untreated, protected pristine and feces- contaminated polluted water supplies Rose et al.

Six of thirty-six samples 17 percent taken from potable drinking water were positive for Cryptosporidium, and concentrations in these waters ranged from. In addition, a total of surface water samples were analyzed from rivers, lakes, or springs in 17 States.

The majority of surface water samples were obtained from Arizona. California, and Utah 12G samples in all , with others from eastern States 28 samples , northwestern States 14 samples , southern States 13 samples. Arithmetic average oocyst concentrations ranged from l«;ss than 1 to 4. The LeChevallier and Norton study collected the most samples and repeat samples from the most surface water plants on a national level. In addition to the source water data, several studies have detected Crvptosporidium oocysts in finished water.

The results of these studies have been compiled in Table H. LeChevallier et al LeChevallier and Norton Consonery et al Consonery et al. LeChevallier and Norton Rosen etal. Stewart el al. States etal. These studies show that despite some treatment in place, Cryptosporidiiim may still pass through the treatment plant and into finished water. In general, oocysts are detected more frequently and in higher concentrations in rivers and streams than in lakes and reservoirs LeChevallier et al.

Madore et al. Such concentrations are especially significant if the contaminant removal process e. Oocysts may pass through to the finished water, as LeChevallier and Norton and several other researchers also found, and infect drinking water consumers.

Recycle streams generated during treatment, such as spent filter backwash water, sedimentation basin sludgo, or thickener supernatant are often returned to Ihe treatment train. These recycle streams, therefore, may contain high concentrations of pathogens, including chlorine-resistant Cryptosporidium oocysts.

Recycle can degrade the treatment process, especially when entering the treatment train after the rapid mix stage, by causing a chemical imbalance, hydraulic surge and potentially overwhelming the plant’s filtration capacity with a large concentration of pathogens. High oocyst concentrations found in recycle waters can increase the risk of pathogens passing through the treatment plant into finished water.

AWWA has compiled issue papers on eai:h of the following recycle streams: Spent filter backwash water, sedimentation basin solids, combined thickener supernatant, ion-exchange regenerate, membrane concentrate, lagoon decant, mechanical dewatering device concentrate, monofill leachate, sludge drying bed leachate, and small- volume streams e.

In addition, EPA compiled existing occurrence data on Cryptosporidium in recycle streams. Through these efforts, Cryptosporidium occurrence data has been found for three types of recycle streams: Spent filter backwash water, sedimentation basin solids, and thickener supernatant. Nine studies have reported the occurrence of Cryptosporidium for these process streams.

Each study’s scope and results are presented in Table II. Round 2: 1 8-hour composite. Moshannon Valley Water Treatment Plant. I Round 1: 1 8-! Round 2: 1 8- hour com- posite. Cornwell and Lee States e! The occurrence data available and reported are primarily for raw and recycle stream water.

If filter backwash enters the treatment train as a slug load and disrupts the treatment process, it is possible its effects would not be readily seen in the finished water until several minutes or hours after returning the filter to service. In addition, the poor recovery efficiencies of the IFA Cryptosporidsum detection method complicate measurements in dilute finished effluent waters. As shown in Table II. For example, four studies Cornwell and Lee, ; States et al.

Recycle can potentially return a significant number of oocysts to the treatment plant in a short amount of time, particularly if the recycle is returned to the treatment process without prior treatment, equalization, or some other type of hydraulic detention. In addition, Di Giovanni, at at. Although recovery by IFA was poor 6 to 8 percent for backwash samples , 9 filter backwash recycle samples were found to contain viable and infectious oocysts, and the infectious agent was determined to be more than 98 percent similar in structure to C.

Should filter backwash recycle disrupt normal treatment operations or should treatment not function efficiently due to other deficiencies, high concentrations of potentially viable, infectious oocysts may pass through the plant into finished drinking water. The recycle stream occurrence studies presented in Table II.

Thames, U. Water Utilities Experience with Cryptosporidium, Colbounit: In response to a cryptosporidiosis outbreak reported in February of Thames Water undertook an investigation of pathogen concentrations within the Farmoor conventional treatment plant’s treatment train, finished and raw waters. The investigation occurred over a two month period, from February to April and included sampling of settled filter backwash, the supernatant from spent filter backwash, raw water, and water sampled at the end of various Thames distribution points.

At the peak of the outbreak, thirty percent of Thames’ distribution system samples were positive for oocysts, and ranged in concentration from 0. Raw reservoir water contained oocyst concentrations ranging from. After washing the filters twice in 24 hours, no oocysts were found in the settled backwash waters.

Water Utilities determined that a storm causing intense precipitation and runoff resulted in elevated levels of oocysts in the source water which led to the high concentrations of oocysts entering the plant and subsequently deposited on the filters and recycled as filter backwash.

Rose, et ai, In this survey. Rose, et al, collected samples from 17 States from to The samples were collected on cartridge filters and analyzed using variations of the IFA method. The reported percent recovery for the method was 29 to 58 percent.

Filter backwash samples were a subset of the , 10 to 40 L samples were collected from rapid sand filters. Rose, et al. This was the highest reported average Cryptosporidium concentration of any of the water types tested, which included polluted and pristine surface and ground water sources, drinking water sources in addition to filter backwash recycle water.

In the analysis of pathogen concentrations in the raw water and filter backwash water of the water treatment process, LeChevallier et al. Ic found very high oocyst levels in backwash water of utilities that had low raw water parasite concentrations. The pathogens were detected using a combined IFA method that the authors developed. Cryptosporidium levels in the initial backwash water were 57 to 61 times higher than in the raw water supplies.

LeChevallier et al. The study concluded that the consistency of these results shows that accumulation of parasites in the treatment filters and subsequent release in the filter backwash recycle water could be related to subsequent passage through treatment barriers.

In total, Cornwell and Lee investigated eight water treatment plants, examining treatment efficiencies including several recycle streams and their impacts, and reporting a range of pathogen and other water quality data. Cornwell and Lee conducted two rounds of sampling at both the Bangor and Moshannon plants, sampling the different recycle and treatment streams as eight-hour composites. In addition, Cornwell and Lee determined oocyst concentrations for two other recycle streams, combined thickener supernatant and sedimentation basin solids.

Karanis et a. Eight out of 12 raw water samples tested were positive for Cryptosporidium range of 0. Of 39 samples collected using cartridge filters, 33 were positive for Cryptosporidium range of 0. The authors called attention to the high detection rate of Cryptosporidium in the backwash waters 82 percent of Plant C and to the fact that the supernatant following sedimentation was not free from cysts and oocysts Karanis et al. States et al. All pathogen sampling was conducted with the IFA method.

The fact that the mean concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in backwash water can be substantially higher than the oocyst concentration in untreated river water suggests that recycling untreated filter backwash water can be a significant source of this parasite to water within the treatment process. Summary and Conclusions Cryptosporidiosis is a disease without a therapeutic cure, and its causative agent.

Crvptosporidium has been known to cause severe illness, especially in immunocompromised individuals, and can be fatal. Several waterborne Cryptosporidiosis outbreaks have been reported, and it is likely that others have occurred but have gone unreported.

Cryptosporidium has been detected in a wide range of source waters, documented in over 30 studies from the literature, and it has been found at levels of concern in filter backwash water and other recycle streams. The SVVTR requires that surface water systems have sufficient treatment to reduce the source water concentration of Giardia and viruses by at least A shortcoming of the SWTR, however, is that the rule does not specifically control for Cryptosporidium.

The IESWTR includes an MCLG of zero for Cryptosporidium and requires a minimum 2-log 99 percent removal of Cryptosporidium, linked to enhanced combined filter effluent and individual filter turbidity control provisions.

Cryptosporidium and other emerging pathogens resistant to standard disinfection practice are reintroduced to the treatment process of PWSs by the recycle of spent filter backwash water, solids treatment residuals, and other process streams.

Insufficient treatment practices have been cited as the cause of several reported waterborne disease outbreaks Rose, Rose also found that a reduction in turbidity is indicative of a more efficient filtration process. Therefore, the turbidity and filter monitoring requirements of today’s proposed LTlFBR will ensure that the removal process necessary to protect the public from Cryptosporidiosis is operating properly, and the recycle stream provisions will ensure that the treatment process is not disrupted or operating inefficiently.

The LTlFBR requirements that address the potential for Cryptosporidium to enter the finished drinking water supply will be described in more detail in tin; following sections. This universe consists of 11, systems serving fewer than 10, persons, and 2. Given this initial baseline, the Agency developed estimates of the number of systems which would be affected by components of today’s proposed rule by utilizing three primary sources: Safe Drinking Water Information Systems; Community Water Supply Survey; and Water: Stats.

A brief overview of each of the data sources is described in the following paragraphs. Pertinent information in this database includes system name and ID. Cryptosporidium 4. Giardia 2. I Giardia 2. Cryptosporidium Giardia and Crypto 1. Pilot plants Pilot plants Pilot-scale plants Pilot-scale plants Full-scale plants Full-scale plants Fult-scale plants Full-scale plants Pilot plants Full-scale plant operation considered not optimized.

Pilot Plant optimal treatment Pilot Plant suboptimal treatment Cryptosporidium 2. Cryptosporidium Pilot plants Cryptosporidium 2 Raw water turbidities in the study ranged between 0. When treatment conditions were optimized for turbidity and particle removal at four different sites, Cryptosporidium removal ranged from 2.

The median turbidity removal was 1. Median oocyst and cyst removal was 4. A filter effluent turbidity of 0. Cryptosporidium removal rates of less than 2. Nieminski, Eva C. The source water of the full scale plant had turbidities typicaily between 2. For the pilot plant achieving filtered water turbidities between 0. For the full scale plant achieving similar filtered water turbidities, Cryptosporidium removal averaged 2.

Differences in performance between direct filtration and conventional treatment by the full scale plant were attributed to differences in source water quality during the filter runs. Ongerth, Jerry E. With optimal coagulation, 3 log removal lor both pathogens were obtained. In one test run, where coagulation was intentionally sub- optimal, the removals were only 1. This demonstrates the importance of proper coagulation for cyst removal even though the effluent turbidity was less than 0.

LeChevallier, Mark W. Source water turbidities ranged from less than 1 to NTU. Removals of Giardia and Cryptosporidium 2. The participating treatment plants operated within varying stages of treatment optimization. The median removal achieved was 2. LeChevallier: Mark W. William D. Most of the utilities achieved between 2 and 2.

Breaking strength was highly dependent on the shape index. A crack was found on the force point along the major axis of each goose egg. The status of goose populations in East Asia. The almost exclusively Chinese wintering range of the Swan Goose A.

The Taiga Bean Goose A Methods: DNA extracted from clinican-collected cervical brush specimens in PreservCyt medium Hologic, from women undergoing management for detected cytological abnormalities, was tested on the three assays. Genotype -specific agreement were assessed by Cohen’s kappa statistic and Fisher’s z-test of significance between proportions.

DNA extracted from clinican-collected cervical brush specimens in PreservCyt medium Hologic , from women undergoing management for detected cytological abnormalities, was tested on the three assays.

Published by Elsevier B. All rights reserved. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant genotype VII Newcastle disease virus expressing VP3 protein of Goose parvovirus as a bivalent vaccine in goslings. Newcastle disease virus NDV and Goose parvovirus GPV are considered to be two of the most important and widespread viruses infecting geese. The genetic stability was examined by serially passaging 10 times in day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs.

This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant NDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against Goose parvovirus and Newcastle disease virus infection in birds. Hawaiian Goose Branta sandvicensis.

Short communications Goose barnacles on seals and a penguin at Short communications Goose barnacles on seals and a penguin at Gough Island. We also recorded a goose barnacle attached to a Northern rockhopper Building and operating the CMS Detector is a complicated endeavour! The concept of the game is inspired by the traditional Game of the Goose.

The underlying idea is that the progress of building and operating a detector at the LHC is similar to the progress of the pawns on the game board it is fast at times, bringing rewards and satisfaction, while sometimes unexpected problems cause delays or even a step back requiring CMS scientists to use all of their skill and creativity to devise new solutions.

Cloning of the genome of a goose parvovirus vaccine strain SYG61v and rescue of infectious virions from recombinant plasmid in embryonated goose eggs.

The genome of SYG61v was sequenced to attempt to identify the genetic basis for the attenuation of this strain. The entire genome consists of nucleotides nts , with four nt deletions compared to that of virulent strain B. The inverted terminal repeats ITR are nts in length, of which nts form a stem region, and 43 nts constitute the bubble region.

Although mutations were observed throughout the ITR, no mismatch was found in the stem. Infectious progeny virus was successfully rescued through transfection of the plasmid pSYG61v in embryonated goose eggs and yielded viral titers similar to its parental virus, as evaluated by ELD This study measured the impact of inter- genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay.

These samples were subjected to confirmatory sequencing. This is a novel natural HCV recombinant that has never been reported. Inter- genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity can affect the accuracy of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay, both of which have significant implications on antiviral regimen choice.

Confirmatory sequencing of ambiguous results is crucial for accurate genotyping. Dynamic models are easily constructed and tested; fully interactive capabilities allow the user to alter model parameters and complexity without recompilation. This environment provides assess to powerful tools such as numerical integration packages, graphical displays, and online help. The object-oriented approach to simulation used in GOOSE combines the concept of modularity with the additional features of allowing precompilation, optimization, testing, and validation of individual modules.

Once a library of classes has been defined and compiled, models can be built and modified without recompilation. The effect of age, genotype and sex on carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes of geese. Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to compare carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes in two different genotypes of geese according to age and sex. One-d-old goslings were divided into four groups according to genotype and sex.

Two dates for slaughtering at 8 and 16 wk of age of goslings were undertaken. Results The slaughter weight, cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were affected by all the studied factors, and significant interactions between age, genotype and sex were detected in the slaughter weight p goose meat was recorded for ES at both ages compared to CG.

Conclusion ES had higher dressing percentage and better sensory attributes, whereas CG exceled in the favourable nutritional value of the meat. Sequencing and generation of an infectious clone of the pathogenic goose parvovirus strain LH. Sequence alignments of the inverted terminal repeats ITR of GPV strains revealed a common nt-pair deletion in the stem of the palindromic structure in the LH strain and three other strains isolated after when compared to three GPV strains isolated earlier than that time.

Transfection of day-old embryonated goose eggs with the plasmid pLH, which contains the entire genome of strain LH, resulted in successful rescue of the infectious virus. Death of embryos after transfection via the chorioallantoic membrane infiltration route occurred earlier than when transfection was done via the allantoic cavity inoculation route.

The rescued virus exhibited virulence similar to that of its parental virus, as evaluated by the mortality rate in goslings. Generation of the pathogenic infectious clone provides us with a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of GPV in the future.

Nonrandom association of a type II procollagen genotype with achondroplasia. Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves defective endochondral bone formation.

Type II collagen is the predominant collagen of cartilage. The presence of this site yields a 7. We found a significant deviation in genotype distribution and allele frequencies in a population of unrelated indi CERN Multimedia.

The concept of the game is inspired by the traditional “Game of the Goose “. The underlying idea is that the progress of building and operating a detector at the LHC is similar to the progress of the pawns on the game board: it is fast at times, bringing rewards and satisfaction, while sometimes unexpected problems cause delays or even a step back requiring CMS scientists to use all of their skill and creativity to devise new solutions. Goose droppings as food for reindeer.

Feeding conditions for Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, on Spitsbergen are generally poor, owing to low availability of forage. We report on coprophagy: the use of goose faeces as an alternative food source for reindeer. Fresh droppings from Barnacle Geese, Branta leucopsis,.

Effect of protective atmosphere on color of goose meat. The objective of the work was to characterize the color of the of the goose breast meat packaged in protective atmosphere and stored in the refrigerated conditions. The muscles packed in protective atmosphere were examined on d 4, 7, 11, and 14 of storage.

A control sample was goose breast meat stored in air and tested after 24 h after slaughter. The total pigment concentration decreased gradually within 14 d of storage for samples packed in 2 types of atmospheres. The increase in relative concentration of metmyoglobin and the decrease in oxymyoglobin relative concentration in total heme pigments in the meat stored in MA was noticed.

However, in all times of storage, the relative concentration of the 3 samples of myoglobin forms stored in vacuum was unchanged. From d 11 to 14 of storage, goose meat packed under MA had lower sensory evaluation intensity of color than muscles under vacuum. A total of 44, and 25, specimens were tested during periods 1 and 2, respectively.

Canada goose nest survival at rural wetlands in north-central Iowa. Currently, Iowa’s resident goose population is stable and nests in a variety of habitats. We analyzed the effects of available habitat on nest survival and how nest survival rates compared with those of the expanding goose population studied previously to better understand how to maintain a sustainable Canada goose population in Iowa. We documented Canada goose nest survival at rural wetland sites in north-central Iowa. We monitored nests in and nests in at 5 Wildlife Management Areas WMAs with various nesting habitats, including islands, muskrat Ondatra zibethicus houses, and elevated nest structures.

Survival was influenced by year, site, stage, presence of a camera, nest age, and an interaction between nest age and stage.

Nest success rates for the day incubation period by site and year combination ranged from 0. Timing of water-level drawdowns for shallow lake restorations may influence nest survival rates. These findings were further supported by phylogenetic analysis showing that GPV-QH15 evolved from goose lineage parvoviruses, rather than from Muscovy duck- or other duck species-related parvoviruses.

Finally, structural modeling revealed that GPV-QH15 and the closely related viruses GPVa and GPV possessed identical clusters of receptor-interacting amino acid residues in the VP2 protein, a major determinant of viral receptor binding and host specificity. Taken together, these results suggest that GPV-QH15 represents a new variant of goose -origin parvovirus that currently circulates in ducklings and causes BADS, a syndrome reported previously in Europe. This new finding highlights the need for future surveillance of GPV-QH15 in poultry in order to gain a better understanding of both the evolution and the biology of this emerging parvovirus.

All Rights Reserved. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area. Canada geese Branta canadensis have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems.

Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food urban grass and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators.

I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the and nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in and in , only raccoons Procyon lotor and coyotes Canis latrans were identified as nest predators. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons.

Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season.

Habitat selection. Towards a solution to the goose -agriculture conflict in North Norway, the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics. This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass.

We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in , in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities.

The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring.

Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese.

For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

Mother Goose is well suited to use in the elementary ESL classroom for several reasons. The stories appeal to children’s imagination, adhering to the principle that a good story should have surprise value, interesting characters, meaningful conflict, action, and realism. The natural rhythms help develop English intonation, and the stories…. Identification of protective components that prevent the exacerbation of goose fatty liver: Characterization, expression and regulation of adiponectin receptors.

Fat accumulation in the liver is a natural process in goose , which prepares goose for long-distance migration. In contrast to mammalian fatty liver that usually progresses into an irreversible status, steatohepatitis, goose fatty liver can return to normal without obvious pathological damage, suggesting a protective system exists in goose liver.

This study was to identify the components of this system. To investigate the regulation of goose Adipor2 in the context of fatty liver, we treated goose primary hepatocytes with fatty liver associated factors.

Data indicated that Adipor2 was upregulated by glucose and oleate but not palmitate. Its expression was even suppressed by high level of insulin. The regulation of Adipor1 by these factors was quite similar to that of Adipor2 except that glucose did not induce Adipor1. Action is needed at this time to manage the restored wetlands at the Park. The Plan Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of goose parvovirus infection in Sweden.

In this paper we describe the clinical observations, diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic investigation carried out to elucidate the source of the infection. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology, virus isolation, and sequence analysis of a bp-long fragment of the VP1 gene. Phylogenetically the causative virus was closely related to pathogenic GPV strains isolated in and from Poland and the United Kingdom, respectively.

The Swedish isolate exhibited less homology with pathogenic strains from Hungary and Asia and with attenuated vaccine strains. The epidemiologic investigation showed that the virus was first introduced to a contract farm farm A and then was transferred with newly hatched goslings to the farm that had submitted the birds for necropsy index farm.

The exact time and source of the virus introduction to farm A could not be determined with absolute certainty. Possible sources of the infection included backyard goose eggs that had been delivered to farm A for subcontract incubation and hatching, wild geese that frequented the flock of breeding geese on pasture on farm A, and a clutch of Canada goose eggs Branta canadensis that had been produced by wild geese and was hatched in the same machine as the eggs produced by farm A.

For this reason, it is necessary to develop a new diagnostic approach that is easier and faster than conventional tests. A rapid immunochromatographic assay based on antibody colloidal gold nanoparticles specific to GPV was developed for the detection of GPV in goose allantoic fluid and supernatant of tissue homogenate.

The colloidal gold was prepared by the reduction of gold salt with sodium citrate coupled with Mab against GPV. The optimal concentrations of the coating antibody and capture antibody were determined to be 1. With visual observation, the lower limit was found to be around 1. Common diseases of goose were tested to evaluate the specificity of the immune colloidal gold ICG strip, and no cross-reaction was observed. The clinical detection was examined by carrying out the ICG strip test with 92 samples and comparing the results of these tests with those obtained via agar diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction PCR test.

Therefore, the ICG strip test was a sufficiently sensitive and accurate detection method for a rapid screening of GPV. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs. Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration’s Hanford Reservation.

Potassium, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium was incorporated into egg shells and cesium into inner egg contents.

Manganese, cobalt, and zinc were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell. Gross anatomical syringeal structures of goose Anser anser domesticus. Conclusion: There were some similarities and some differences of the anatomical structures of the syrinx of goose and that of other bird species. No differences between male and female syrinx were observed. Bennett, Richard S. However, the goose virus contained the largest attachment G gene of any pneumovirus or metapneumovirus, with the predicted G protein of amino acids aa more than twice the sizes of G proteins from other subtype C viruses and human metapneumovirus and more than aa larger than the G proteins from the other aMPV subtypes subtypes A, B, and D.

More importantly, the virus replicated efficiently in the upper respiratory tract of domestic turkeys but with no clinical signs in either day-old or 2-week-old turkeys. Mitochondrial D-loop sequence of domesticated waterfowl in Central Java: goose and muscovy duck.

This study aims to determine the genetic characterization of domesticated waterfowl goose and Muscovy duck in Central Java based on a D-loop mtDNA gene. The D-loop gene was amplified using PCR technique by specific primer and sequenced using dideoxy termination method.

The results of the polymorphism analysis on D-loop sequences of muscovy duck produced 3 haplotypes. In the D-loop gene of goose does not show polymorphism, with substitution at GA. Phylogenetic trees reconstructions of goose and Muscovy duck, which was collected during this research compared with another species from Anser, Chairina and Anas was generated 2 forms of clusters.

The first group consists of all kind of Muscovy duck together with Chairina moschata and Anas, while the second group consists of all geese and Anser cygnoides the other. The determination of Muscovy duck and geese identity can be distinguished from the genetic marker information. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, it can be concluded that the Muscovy duck is closely related to Chairina moschata, while geese is closely related to Anser cygnoides.

Full Text Available Background. Since no such study has yet been performed in Benin, this pilot one aimed at assessing HLA class II allele, haplotype, and genotype associations with T1D. Material and Methods. Participants were aged 1—24 years. Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose. Mar 15, The bp control region D-loop of mitochondrial DNA from 13 light- body type breeds was Fads1 and 2 are promoted to meet instant need for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in goose fatty liver.

Goose is a unique model of NAFLD for discovering therapeutic targets as its liver can develop severe steatosis without overt injury.

Fatty acid desaturase Fads is a potential therapeutic target as Fads expression and mutations are associated with liver fat. Here, we hypothesized that Fads was promoted to provide a protection for goose fatty liver. To test this, goose Fads1 and Fads2 were sequenced. Liver fatty acid composition was also analyzed by gas chromatography. In contrast, trans-Cn9 fatty acid Fads inhibitor was reduced. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska.

The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation.

Since , the distribution of molting Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas.

We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between and with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between and , accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation.

This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a ‘tipping point’ whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes.

APOA II genotypes frequency and their interaction with saturated fatty acids consumption on lipid profile of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross sectional study, type 2 diabetic patients participated.

Food consumption data were collected using validated semi-quantitative FFQ during the last year. APOA II polymorphism may influence the saturated fatty acid intake required to prevent dyslipidemia in the type 2 diabetic population. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba.

We examined factors influencing Canada Goose Branta canadensis interior annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings Dicrostonyx richardsoni , arctic fox Alopex lagopus den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success.

High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the “bird-lemming” hypothesis.

Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem.

Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system.

Attenuation of the goose parvovirus strain B. Laboratory and field trials of the attenuated mutant for vaccination against Derzsy’s disease. Serial transfer of the goose parvovirus strain B, causal agent of Derzsy’s gosling disease, in cultured goose -embryo fibroblast GEF resulted in a mutant designated as Bav apathogenic for both goose embryos and susceptible goslings. Goose embryos inoculated with the 38th or higher passages of strain B survived the infection, although the virus replicated in their organs.

Susceptible goslings survived challenge with the Bav strain without showing symptoms, and developed normally. Only 4. Progeny of vaccinated and unvaccinated geese were placed on a farm on which Derzsy’s disease was present. During the first month of life mortality was 7. These results indicate that the attenuated apathogenic Bav mutant is suitable for the immunisation of layers to protect their progeny by passive immunisation against Derzsy’s disease.

Retrieval of proximally migrated double J ureteric stents in children using goose neck snare. Full Text Available Purpose: Proximal migration of the ureteric double J stent is a rare but known complication. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients with displaced double J stent was carried out, in whom cystoscopy guided retrieval of double J stent was attempted with the help of Amplatz goose -neck snare under radiological control.

Results: All three patients were under the age of 3 years. Two patients had migrated double J stent following pyeloplasty and in one patient the double J stent was displaced during a retrograde insertion of double J stent. In all cases, retrieval of displaced double J stent was successfully achieved using Amplatz goose -neck snare. There were no postoperative complications.

Conclusion: Our method of retrieval of stent from renal pelvis is simple, safe and minimally invasive. This technique is a useful and safe alternative option for retrieval of proximally migrated double J stents in children.

HCV genotyping is a critical tool for guiding initiation of therapy and selecting the most appropriate treatment regimen. The Abbott assay was used to genotype routine patient specimens and 35 patient specimens with unusual subtypes and mixed infection. The Abbott assay subtyped Samples identified by the Abbott assay as genotype 1 with no subtype may be rare subtypes of other genotypes and thus require confirmation by another method.

Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose Li The bp control region D-loop of mitochondrial DNA from 13 lightbody type breeds Enhancement of local species richness in tundra by seed dispersal through guts of muskox and barnacle goose. The potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a High Arctic ecosystem was investigated. We analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in Northeast Greenland – muskox Ovibos High numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose.

Seeds of many plant species were found in the faeces of one vertebrate species only. Propagule composition Propagule composition in muskox dung was diverse and heterogeneous among Development and evaluation of a competitive ELISA using a monoclonal antibody for antibody detection after goose parvovirus virus-like particles VLPs and vaccine immunization in goose sera.

Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity of the assay was The rVP2-VLPs did not react with anti-sera to other goose pathogens, indicating that it is specific for the recognization of goose parvovirus antibodies.

The C-ELISA described in this study is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test and should have wide applications for the sero-diagnosis and immunologic surveillance of GPV. Failure of orally administered attenuated goose parvovirus strain B to induce a humoral immune response in adult geese. Two-month-old geese responded with the production of virus neutralising antibodies against virulent goose parvovirus strain B administered either per os or intramuscularly.

They were shedding the virus within a short period after exposure. Humoral immune response in geese of the same age was induced by the attenuated goose parvovirus strain B only by intramuscular injection but not with per os administration. Effects of gull predation and weather on survival of emperor goose goslings. Numbers of emperor geese Chen canagica have remained depressed since the mids. Despite increases in glaucous gulls Larus hyperboreus , a primary predator of goslings, little information existed to assess whether recent patterns of gosling survival have been a major factor affecting population dynamics.

We used observations of known families of emperor geese to estimate rates of gosling survival during on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Survival of goslings to 30 days of age varied among years from 0.

Survival was lowest during , which corresponded with the years of highest frequency of disturbance of goose broods by glaucous gulls. Although there are no data to assess whether gosling survival in emperor geese has declined from some previous level, current survival rates of emperor goose goslings are as high as or higher than those observed in other goose species that are rapidly increasing.

A proposed reduction of glaucous gull numbers by managers may not be the most effective means for increasing population growth in emperor geese.

Portions of the coast are goose forage in coastal areas. Full Text Available Distinct Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes have been considered relevant for patient management and therapeutic response of Chagas disease. However, typing strategies for genotype -specific serodiagnosis of Chagas disease are still unavailable and requires standardization for practical application. This study also proposes a receiver operating reactivity panel, providing a feasible tool to classify serum samples from hosts infected with distinct T.

Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins VPs could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles VLPs in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese.

To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity.

In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro.

These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy’s disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs. Construction and sequencing of an infectious clone of the goose embryo-adapted Muscovy duck parvovirus vaccine strain FZ Muscovy duck parvovirus MDPV is the etiological agent of Muscovy duckling parvoviral disease, which is characterized by diarrhea, locomotive dysfunction, stunting, and death in young ducklings, and causes substantial economic losses in the Muscovy duck industry worldwide.

FZ is an attenuated vaccine strain that is safe and immunogenic to ducklings, but the genomic information and molecular mechanism underlining the attenuation are not understood. The FZ strain was propagated in day-old embryonated goose eggs, and viral particles were purified from the pooled allantoic fluid by differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation.

The sub-genomic plasmid clones were sequenced and further combined to construct the plasmid pFZ that contained the entire genome of strain FZ The complete genome sequences of strain FM and YY and partial genome sequences of other strains were retrieved from GenBank for sequence comparison. The plasmid pFZ containing the entire genome of FZ was transfected in day-old embryonated goose eggs via the chorioallantoic membranes route to rescue infectious virus.

A genetic marker was introduced into the rescued virus to discriminate from its parental virus. The genome of FZ consists of 5, nucleotides and has The exterior nucleotides of the ITR form a hairpin structure, and the interior 41 nucleotides constitute the D sequence, a reverse complement of the D’ sequence at the 3′ ITR. Characterization of OAZ1 and its potential functions in goose follicular development. Conclusions: The goose OAZ1 structure confirms that OAZ1 plays an important role in ornithine decarboxylase-mediated regulation of polyamine homeostasis.

Our findings provide an evidence for a potential function of OAZ1 in follicular development, ovulation and regression. Goose -mediated nutrient enrichment and planktonic grazer control in arctic freshwater ponds. Van Geest, G. A dramatic increase in the breeding population of geese has occurred over the past few decades at Svalbard. This may strongly impact the fragile ecosystems of the Arctic tundra because many of the ultra-oligotrophic freshwater systems experience enrichment from goose feces.

We surveyed 21 shallow. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on goose parvovirus non-structural protein. Goose parvovirus GPV infection can cause a highly contagious and lethal disease in goslings and muscovy ducklings which is widespread in all major goose Anser anser and Muscovy duck Cairina moschata farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss.

However, it is still unknown for the localization and immunological characteristics of B-cell epitopes on GPV non-structural protein NSP. Therefore, in this study, the epitopes on the NSP of GPV were identified by means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot.

The results showed that the antigenic epitopes on the GPV NSP were predominantly localized in the C-terminal aa , and especially, the fragment NS was strongly positive. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus. From the early s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome SBDS have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus.

It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection. One-d-old goslings were divided into four groups according to genotype and sex. Two dates for slaughtering at 8 and 16 wk of age of goslings were undertaken. Results The slaughter weight, cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were affected by all the studied factors, and significant interactions between age, genotype and sex were detected in the slaughter weight p goose meat was recorded for ES at both ages compared to CG.

Conclusion ES had higher dressing percentage and better sensory attributes, whereas CG exceled in the favourable nutritional value of the meat.

Sequencing and generation of an infectious clone of the pathogenic goose parvovirus strain LH. Sequence alignments of the inverted terminal repeats ITR of GPV strains revealed a common nt-pair deletion in the stem of the palindromic structure in the LH strain and three other strains isolated after when compared to three GPV strains isolated earlier than that time. Transfection of day-old embryonated goose eggs with the plasmid pLH, which contains the entire genome of strain LH, resulted in successful rescue of the infectious virus.

Death of embryos after transfection via the chorioallantoic membrane infiltration route occurred earlier than when transfection was done via the allantoic cavity inoculation route. The rescued virus exhibited virulence similar to that of its parental virus, as evaluated by the mortality rate in goslings.

Generation of the pathogenic infectious clone provides us with a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of GPV in the future. Nonrandom association of a type II procollagen genotype with achondroplasia. Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves defective endochondral bone formation. Type II collagen is the predominant collagen of cartilage. The presence of this site yields a 7. We found a significant deviation in genotype distribution and allele frequencies in a population of unrelated indi CERN Multimedia.

The concept of the game is inspired by the traditional “Game of the Goose “. The underlying idea is that the progress of building and operating a detector at the LHC is similar to the progress of the pawns on the game board: it is fast at times, bringing rewards and satisfaction, while sometimes unexpected problems cause delays or even a step back requiring CMS scientists to use all of their skill and creativity to devise new solutions.

Goose droppings as food for reindeer. Feeding conditions for Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, on Spitsbergen are generally poor, owing to low availability of forage. We report on coprophagy: the use of goose faeces as an alternative food source for reindeer. Fresh droppings from Barnacle Geese, Branta leucopsis,. Effect of protective atmosphere on color of goose meat. The objective of the work was to characterize the color of the of the goose breast meat packaged in protective atmosphere and stored in the refrigerated conditions.

The muscles packed in protective atmosphere were examined on d 4, 7, 11, and 14 of storage. A control sample was goose breast meat stored in air and tested after 24 h after slaughter.

The total pigment concentration decreased gradually within 14 d of storage for samples packed in 2 types of atmospheres. The increase in relative concentration of metmyoglobin and the decrease in oxymyoglobin relative concentration in total heme pigments in the meat stored in MA was noticed.

However, in all times of storage, the relative concentration of the 3 samples of myoglobin forms stored in vacuum was unchanged. From d 11 to 14 of storage, goose meat packed under MA had lower sensory evaluation intensity of color than muscles under vacuum.

A total of 44, and 25, specimens were tested during periods 1 and 2, respectively. Canada goose nest survival at rural wetlands in north-central Iowa. Currently, Iowa’s resident goose population is stable and nests in a variety of habitats. We analyzed the effects of available habitat on nest survival and how nest survival rates compared with those of the expanding goose population studied previously to better understand how to maintain a sustainable Canada goose population in Iowa.

We documented Canada goose nest survival at rural wetland sites in north-central Iowa. We monitored nests in and nests in at 5 Wildlife Management Areas WMAs with various nesting habitats, including islands, muskrat Ondatra zibethicus houses, and elevated nest structures.

Survival was influenced by year, site, stage, presence of a camera, nest age, and an interaction between nest age and stage. Nest success rates for the day incubation period by site and year combination ranged from 0.

Timing of water-level drawdowns for shallow lake restorations may influence nest survival rates. These findings were further supported by phylogenetic analysis showing that GPV-QH15 evolved from goose lineage parvoviruses, rather than from Muscovy duck- or other duck species-related parvoviruses. Finally, structural modeling revealed that GPV-QH15 and the closely related viruses GPVa and GPV possessed identical clusters of receptor-interacting amino acid residues in the VP2 protein, a major determinant of viral receptor binding and host specificity.

Taken together, these results suggest that GPV-QH15 represents a new variant of goose -origin parvovirus that currently circulates in ducklings and causes BADS, a syndrome reported previously in Europe. This new finding highlights the need for future surveillance of GPV-QH15 in poultry in order to gain a better understanding of both the evolution and the biology of this emerging parvovirus.

All Rights Reserved. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area. Canada geese Branta canadensis have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems.

Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food urban grass and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the and nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis.

Of 58 nests monitored in and in , only raccoons Procyon lotor and coyotes Canis latrans were identified as nest predators. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years.

To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection. Towards a solution to the goose -agriculture conflict in North Norway, the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass.

We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in , in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities.

The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese.

For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

Mother Goose is well suited to use in the elementary ESL classroom for several reasons. The stories appeal to children’s imagination, adhering to the principle that a good story should have surprise value, interesting characters, meaningful conflict, action, and realism.

The natural rhythms help develop English intonation, and the stories…. Identification of protective components that prevent the exacerbation of goose fatty liver: Characterization, expression and regulation of adiponectin receptors.

Fat accumulation in the liver is a natural process in goose , which prepares goose for long-distance migration. In contrast to mammalian fatty liver that usually progresses into an irreversible status, steatohepatitis, goose fatty liver can return to normal without obvious pathological damage, suggesting a protective system exists in goose liver.

This study was to identify the components of this system. To investigate the regulation of goose Adipor2 in the context of fatty liver, we treated goose primary hepatocytes with fatty liver associated factors. Data indicated that Adipor2 was upregulated by glucose and oleate but not palmitate.

Its expression was even suppressed by high level of insulin. The regulation of Adipor1 by these factors was quite similar to that of Adipor2 except that glucose did not induce Adipor1. Action is needed at this time to manage the restored wetlands at the Park. The Plan Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of goose parvovirus infection in Sweden. In this paper we describe the clinical observations, diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic investigation carried out to elucidate the source of the infection.

The diagnosis was confirmed by serology, virus isolation, and sequence analysis of a bp-long fragment of the VP1 gene. Phylogenetically the causative virus was closely related to pathogenic GPV strains isolated in and from Poland and the United Kingdom, respectively. The Swedish isolate exhibited less homology with pathogenic strains from Hungary and Asia and with attenuated vaccine strains.

The epidemiologic investigation showed that the virus was first introduced to a contract farm farm A and then was transferred with newly hatched goslings to the farm that had submitted the birds for necropsy index farm. The exact time and source of the virus introduction to farm A could not be determined with absolute certainty. Possible sources of the infection included backyard goose eggs that had been delivered to farm A for subcontract incubation and hatching, wild geese that frequented the flock of breeding geese on pasture on farm A, and a clutch of Canada goose eggs Branta canadensis that had been produced by wild geese and was hatched in the same machine as the eggs produced by farm A.

For this reason, it is necessary to develop a new diagnostic approach that is easier and faster than conventional tests. A rapid immunochromatographic assay based on antibody colloidal gold nanoparticles specific to GPV was developed for the detection of GPV in goose allantoic fluid and supernatant of tissue homogenate. The colloidal gold was prepared by the reduction of gold salt with sodium citrate coupled with Mab against GPV. The optimal concentrations of the coating antibody and capture antibody were determined to be 1.

With visual observation, the lower limit was found to be around 1. Common diseases of goose were tested to evaluate the specificity of the immune colloidal gold ICG strip, and no cross-reaction was observed. The clinical detection was examined by carrying out the ICG strip test with 92 samples and comparing the results of these tests with those obtained via agar diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction PCR test.

Therefore, the ICG strip test was a sufficiently sensitive and accurate detection method for a rapid screening of GPV. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs. Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration’s Hanford Reservation.

Potassium, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium was incorporated into egg shells and cesium into inner egg contents. Manganese, cobalt, and zinc were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell.

Gross anatomical syringeal structures of goose Anser anser domesticus. Conclusion: There were some similarities and some differences of the anatomical structures of the syrinx of goose and that of other bird species. No differences between male and female syrinx were observed. Bennett, Richard S. However, the goose virus contained the largest attachment G gene of any pneumovirus or metapneumovirus, with the predicted G protein of amino acids aa more than twice the sizes of G proteins from other subtype C viruses and human metapneumovirus and more than aa larger than the G proteins from the other aMPV subtypes subtypes A, B, and D.

More importantly, the virus replicated efficiently in the upper respiratory tract of domestic turkeys but with no clinical signs in either day-old or 2-week-old turkeys. Mitochondrial D-loop sequence of domesticated waterfowl in Central Java: goose and muscovy duck. This study aims to determine the genetic characterization of domesticated waterfowl goose and Muscovy duck in Central Java based on a D-loop mtDNA gene. The D-loop gene was amplified using PCR technique by specific primer and sequenced using dideoxy termination method.

The results of the polymorphism analysis on D-loop sequences of muscovy duck produced 3 haplotypes. In the D-loop gene of goose does not show polymorphism, with substitution at GA.

Phylogenetic trees reconstructions of goose and Muscovy duck, which was collected during this research compared with another species from Anser, Chairina and Anas was generated 2 forms of clusters. The first group consists of all kind of Muscovy duck together with Chairina moschata and Anas, while the second group consists of all geese and Anser cygnoides the other. The determination of Muscovy duck and geese identity can be distinguished from the genetic marker information.

Based on the phylogenetic analysis, it can be concluded that the Muscovy duck is closely related to Chairina moschata, while geese is closely related to Anser cygnoides. Full Text Available Background. Since no such study has yet been performed in Benin, this pilot one aimed at assessing HLA class II allele, haplotype, and genotype associations with T1D. Material and Methods. Participants were aged 1—24 years.

Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose. Mar 15, The bp control region D-loop of mitochondrial DNA from 13 light- body type breeds was Fads1 and 2 are promoted to meet instant need for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in goose fatty liver. Goose is a unique model of NAFLD for discovering therapeutic targets as its liver can develop severe steatosis without overt injury.

Fatty acid desaturase Fads is a potential therapeutic target as Fads expression and mutations are associated with liver fat. Here, we hypothesized that Fads was promoted to provide a protection for goose fatty liver.

To test this, goose Fads1 and Fads2 were sequenced. Liver fatty acid composition was also analyzed by gas chromatography. In contrast, trans-Cn9 fatty acid Fads inhibitor was reduced. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska.

The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since , the distribution of molting Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries.

We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between and with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon.

Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between and , accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution.

Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a ‘tipping point’ whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes. APOA II genotypes frequency and their interaction with saturated fatty acids consumption on lipid profile of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross sectional study, type 2 diabetic patients participated.

Food consumption data were collected using validated semi-quantitative FFQ during the last year. APOA II polymorphism may influence the saturated fatty acid intake required to prevent dyslipidemia in the type 2 diabetic population. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba. We examined factors influencing Canada Goose Branta canadensis interior annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings Dicrostonyx richardsoni , arctic fox Alopex lagopus den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba.

Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success.

Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the “bird-lemming” hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system.

The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system.

Attenuation of the goose parvovirus strain B. Laboratory and field trials of the attenuated mutant for vaccination against Derzsy’s disease. Serial transfer of the goose parvovirus strain B, causal agent of Derzsy’s gosling disease, in cultured goose -embryo fibroblast GEF resulted in a mutant designated as Bav apathogenic for both goose embryos and susceptible goslings.

Goose embryos inoculated with the 38th or higher passages of strain B survived the infection, although the virus replicated in their organs. Susceptible goslings survived challenge with the Bav strain without showing symptoms, and developed normally. Only 4. Progeny of vaccinated and unvaccinated geese were placed on a farm on which Derzsy’s disease was present. During the first month of life mortality was 7.

These results indicate that the attenuated apathogenic Bav mutant is suitable for the immunisation of layers to protect their progeny by passive immunisation against Derzsy’s disease. Retrieval of proximally migrated double J ureteric stents in children using goose neck snare. Full Text Available Purpose: Proximal migration of the ureteric double J stent is a rare but known complication.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients with displaced double J stent was carried out, in whom cystoscopy guided retrieval of double J stent was attempted with the help of Amplatz goose -neck snare under radiological control. Results: All three patients were under the age of 3 years. Two patients had migrated double J stent following pyeloplasty and in one patient the double J stent was displaced during a retrograde insertion of double J stent.

In all cases, retrieval of displaced double J stent was successfully achieved using Amplatz goose -neck snare. There were no postoperative complications. Conclusion: Our method of retrieval of stent from renal pelvis is simple, safe and minimally invasive. This technique is a useful and safe alternative option for retrieval of proximally migrated double J stents in children. HCV genotyping is a critical tool for guiding initiation of therapy and selecting the most appropriate treatment regimen.

The Abbott assay was used to genotype routine patient specimens and 35 patient specimens with unusual subtypes and mixed infection. The Abbott assay subtyped Samples identified by the Abbott assay as genotype 1 with no subtype may be rare subtypes of other genotypes and thus require confirmation by another method.

Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose Li The bp control region D-loop of mitochondrial DNA from 13 lightbody type breeds Enhancement of local species richness in tundra by seed dispersal through guts of muskox and barnacle goose. The potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a High Arctic ecosystem was investigated.

We analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in Northeast Greenland – muskox Ovibos High numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose. Seeds of many plant species were found in the faeces of one vertebrate species only. Propagule composition Propagule composition in muskox dung was diverse and heterogeneous among Development and evaluation of a competitive ELISA using a monoclonal antibody for antibody detection after goose parvovirus virus-like particles VLPs and vaccine immunization in goose sera.

Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity of the assay was The rVP2-VLPs did not react with anti-sera to other goose pathogens, indicating that it is specific for the recognization of goose parvovirus antibodies.

The C-ELISA described in this study is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test and should have wide applications for the sero-diagnosis and immunologic surveillance of GPV. Failure of orally administered attenuated goose parvovirus strain B to induce a humoral immune response in adult geese.

Two-month-old geese responded with the production of virus neutralising antibodies against virulent goose parvovirus strain B administered either per os or intramuscularly.

They were shedding the virus within a short period after exposure. Humoral immune response in geese of the same age was induced by the attenuated goose parvovirus strain B only by intramuscular injection but not with per os administration.

Effects of gull predation and weather on survival of emperor goose goslings. Numbers of emperor geese Chen canagica have remained depressed since the mids. Despite increases in glaucous gulls Larus hyperboreus , a primary predator of goslings, little information existed to assess whether recent patterns of gosling survival have been a major factor affecting population dynamics.

We used observations of known families of emperor geese to estimate rates of gosling survival during on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Survival of goslings to 30 days of age varied among years from 0.

Survival was lowest during , which corresponded with the years of highest frequency of disturbance of goose broods by glaucous gulls. Although there are no data to assess whether gosling survival in emperor geese has declined from some previous level, current survival rates of emperor goose goslings are as high as or higher than those observed in other goose species that are rapidly increasing.

A proposed reduction of glaucous gull numbers by managers may not be the most effective means for increasing population growth in emperor geese.

Portions of the coast are goose forage in coastal areas. Full Text Available Distinct Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes have been considered relevant for patient management and therapeutic response of Chagas disease. However, typing strategies for genotype -specific serodiagnosis of Chagas disease are still unavailable and requires standardization for practical application. This study also proposes a receiver operating reactivity panel, providing a feasible tool to classify serum samples from hosts infected with distinct T.

Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins VPs could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles VLPs in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese.

To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity.

In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese.

Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy’s disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs. Construction and sequencing of an infectious clone of the goose embryo-adapted Muscovy duck parvovirus vaccine strain FZ Muscovy duck parvovirus MDPV is the etiological agent of Muscovy duckling parvoviral disease, which is characterized by diarrhea, locomotive dysfunction, stunting, and death in young ducklings, and causes substantial economic losses in the Muscovy duck industry worldwide.

FZ is an attenuated vaccine strain that is safe and immunogenic to ducklings, but the genomic information and molecular mechanism underlining the attenuation are not understood. The FZ strain was propagated in day-old embryonated goose eggs, and viral particles were purified from the pooled allantoic fluid by differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. The sub-genomic plasmid clones were sequenced and further combined to construct the plasmid pFZ that contained the entire genome of strain FZ The complete genome sequences of strain FM and YY and partial genome sequences of other strains were retrieved from GenBank for sequence comparison.

The plasmid pFZ containing the entire genome of FZ was transfected in day-old embryonated goose eggs via the chorioallantoic membranes route to rescue infectious virus. A genetic marker was introduced into the rescued virus to discriminate from its parental virus. The genome of FZ consists of 5, nucleotides and has The exterior nucleotides of the ITR form a hairpin structure, and the interior 41 nucleotides constitute the D sequence, a reverse complement of the D’ sequence at the 3′ ITR.

Characterization of OAZ1 and its potential functions in goose follicular development. Conclusions: The goose OAZ1 structure confirms that OAZ1 plays an important role in ornithine decarboxylase-mediated regulation of polyamine homeostasis. Our findings provide an evidence for a potential function of OAZ1 in follicular development, ovulation and regression.

Goose -mediated nutrient enrichment and planktonic grazer control in arctic freshwater ponds. Van Geest, G. A dramatic increase in the breeding population of geese has occurred over the past few decades at Svalbard.

This may strongly impact the fragile ecosystems of the Arctic tundra because many of the ultra-oligotrophic freshwater systems experience enrichment from goose feces. We surveyed 21 shallow. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on goose parvovirus non-structural protein. Goose parvovirus GPV infection can cause a highly contagious and lethal disease in goslings and muscovy ducklings which is widespread in all major goose Anser anser and Muscovy duck Cairina moschata farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss.

However, it is still unknown for the localization and immunological characteristics of B-cell epitopes on GPV non-structural protein NSP. Therefore, in this study, the epitopes on the NSP of GPV were identified by means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot. The results showed that the antigenic epitopes on the GPV NSP were predominantly localized in the C-terminal aa , and especially, the fragment NS was strongly positive.

Short beak and dwarfism syndrome of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus. From the early s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome SBDS have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection.

The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus strains isolated from field cases of SBDS, and to reproduce the disease experimentally. Phylogenetic analysis proved that the parvovirus isolates obtained from SBDS of mule duck belonged to a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus-related group of waterfowl parvoviruses.

Emergence of dengue virus 4 genotype II in Guangzhou, China, Survey and molecular epidemiology of one community outbreak. However, it has not been known to have caused a local outbreak in China for the past 20 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the epidemiology of one local community outbreak caused by DENV-4 in Guangzhou city, China, in ; and to determine the molecular characteristics of the genotype II virus involved.

Case presentations During September and October of , one imported case, a Guangzhou resident who travelled back from Thailand, resulted in 18 secondary autochthonous cases in Guangzhou City, with an incidence rate of 5. With identical envelope gene nucleotide sequences, the two isolates DGZ from the imported index case and Guangzhou from the first isolate in the autochthonous cases were grouped into DENV-4 genotype II after comparison to 32 previous DENV-4 isolates from GenBank that originated from different areas.

Conclusions Based on epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses, the outbreak, which was absent for 20 years after the DENV-4 genotype I outbreak in , was confirmed as DENV-4 genotype II and initially traced to the imported index case, a Guangzhou resident who travelled back from Thailand.

Porphyromonas gingivalis Fim-A genotype distribution among Colombians. Introduction: Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with periodontitis and exhibit a wide array of virulence factors, including fimbriae which is encoded by the FimA gene representing six known genotypes. Objetive: To identify FimA genotypes of P. Methods: Subgingival samples were collected from people exhibiting diverse periodontal condition.

The occurrence of P. Results: P. Genotype FimA II was more prevalent without reach significant differences among study groups Conclusions: Porphyromonas gingivalis was high even in the healthy group at the study population.

A trend toward a greater frequency of FimA II genotype in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis was determined. The FimA II genotype was also associated with increased pocket depth, greater loss of attachment level, and patients co-infected with T. Hepatitis B virus genotypes circulating in Brazil: molecular characterization of genotype F isolates. Genotypes A, D and F are predominant in Brazil, a country formed by a miscegenated population, where the proportion of individuals from Caucasian, Amerindian and African origins varies by region.

Genotype F, which is the most divergent, is considered indigenous to the Americas. A systematic molecular characterization of HBV isolates from different parts of the world would be invaluable in establishing HBV evolutionary origins and dispersion patterns.

A large-scale study is needed to map the region-by-region distribution of the HBV genotypes in Brazil. No other genotypes were identified. Overall, genotype A was most prevalent Genotype D was the most common genotype in the South The deduced serotype of 31 of 32 F isolates was adw4. The remaining isolate showed a leucine-to-isoleucine substitution at position Conclusion The presence of genotypes A, D and F, and the absence of other genotypes in a large cohort of HBV infected individuals may reflect the ethnic origins of the Brazilian population.

The high prevalence of isolates from subgenotype A1 of African origin indicates that the African influx during the colonial slavery period had a major impact on the circulation of HBV genotype A currently found in Brazil. Although most genotype F. Norovirus NoV is a leading cause of gastroenteritis and genotype II.

Our objective was to examine whether sequencing of the capsid gene might be a useful tool for the hospital outbreak investigation to define possible Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China. Although this sequence is highly conserved among different clinical strains, approximately half of chronically infected hepatitis C patients do not respond to interferon therapy.

Stem-loop II siRNA may be a good target for developing an intracellular immunization strategy based antiviral therapy to inhibit hepatitis C virus strains that are not inhibited by interferon. Elemental microchemistry, fatty acid profile and geometric morphometrics signatures of goose barnacles Pollicipes pollicipes reveal their place of origin.

Full Text Available Seafood plays an important role in the socioeconomic, gastronomy and cultural heritage of Portuguese coastal communities.

 

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To our knowledge, this is the first report that a human helper-dependent member szmplesource the Parvoviridae can provide helper activity for an autonomous parvovirus in a natural host. Disinfection Benchmarking a. Usa jobs resume builder samplesource canada goose may lead to ever increasing levels of oocysts being applied to the filters and could increase the concentration of oocysts in finished water. The rate sensitivity of the eggshell rupture force is higher than that observed for the Japanese quail’s eggs. The most frequent mutation was the splicing mutation c.

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